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Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
11-27-2013, 07:20 PM
Post: #1
Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower

In 1620, 102 travelers-36 Puritans and 66 non-Puritans referred to as "Strangers". the Pilgrims were beset by rivalries and tensions with those they called the Strangers, the secular settlers who accompanied them on the Mayflower. The Strangers were the secular majority of the Plymouth colonists.

White English secular members were 66 of the Mayflower passengers and only 36 were of the Puritan Christians. So the majority of the first settlers of the USA were just regular secular English people who wanted freedom and less government.

Philbrick (2006), pp 104
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11-29-2013, 02:54 AM
Post: #2
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Early Passenger Lists of Plymouth Colony
Mayflower Ancestry

Mayflower (1620)
Fortune (1621)
Anne and Little James (1623)

Famous Mayflower Descendants
The Mayflower crew
The Merchant Adventurers (shareholders in Plymouth Colony).

Online Genealogical Resources
Mayflower Genealogy Books

Leiden Archives
Access2Archives (National Archives, London)
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Probate Search
Manorial Documents Register Search
New England Historic and Genealogical Society
Massachusetts Historical Society
Massachusetts Archives
Massachusetts Vital Records Online
Connecticut Vital Records Online
FamilySearch and

Mayflower Families for Five Generations Publications
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11-29-2013, 02:55 AM
Post: #3
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Mayflower (1620)
Passenger List:

John Alden
Isaac and Mary (Norris) Allerton, and children Bartholomew, Remember, and Mary
John Allerton
John and Eleanor Billington, and sons John and Francis.
William and Dorothy (May) Bradford
William and Mary Brewster, and children Love and Wrestling
Richard Britteridge
Peter Browne
William Butten
Robert Carter
John and Katherine (White) Carver
James and Mrs. Chilton, and daughter Mary
Richard Clarke
Francis Cooke and son John
Humility Cooper
John Crackstone and son John
Edward Doty
Francis and Sarah Eaton, and son Samuel
Thomas English
Moses Fletcher
Edward and Mrs. Fuller, and son Samuel
Samuel Fuller
Richard Gardiner
John Goodman
William Holbeck
John Hooke
Stephen and Elizabeth (Fisher) Hopkins and children Constance, Giles and Damaris; son Oceanus was born during the voyage.
John Howland

John Langmore
William Latham
Edward Leister
Edmund Margesson
Christopher and Mary (Prower) Martin
Desire Minter
Ellen, Jasper, Richard, and Mary More
William and Alice Mullins and children Priscilla and Joseph
Degory Priest
Solomon Prower
John and Alice Rigsdale
Thomas Rogers and son Joseph
Henry Samson
George Soule
Myles and Rose Standish
Elias Story
Edward Thompson
Edward and Agnes (Cooper) Tilley
John and Joan (Hurst) Tilley and daughter Elizabeth
Thomas and Mrs. Tinker, and a son
William Trevore
John Turner, and two sons
Richard Warren
William and Susanna White, and son Resolved (son Peregrine was born shipboard in Provincetown Harbor after arrival).
Roger Wilder
Thomas Williams
Edward and Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow
Gilbert Winslow
"Mr. Ely"
Dorothy (John Carver's maidservant)
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11-29-2013, 02:59 AM
Post: #4
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower

1620 John Carver
1621-1632 William Bradford
1633 Edward Winslow
1634 Thomas Prence
1635 William Bradford
1636 Edward Winslow
1637 William Bradford
1638 Thomas Prence
1639-1643 William Bradford
1644 Edward Winslow
1645-1656 William Bradford
1657-1672 Thomas Prence
1673-1679 Josiah Winslow
1680-1692 Thomas Hinckley
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11-29-2013, 03:03 AM
Post: #5
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
The White Pilgrims first fed the enemy Indian tribe, out of good faith alone, then the Indians felt obligated to give back in return for the gifts of food that the Pilgrims provided them.

There are only two contemporary accounts of the 1621 Thanksgiving: First is Edward Winslow's account, which he wrote in a letter dated December 12, 1621. The complete letter was first published in 1622.
    Our corn [i.e. wheat] did prove well, and God be praised, we had a good increase of Indian corn, and our barley indifferent good, but our peas not worth the gathering, for we feared they were too late sown. They came up very well, and blossomed, but the sun parched them in the blossom. Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors. They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty.

The second description was written about twenty years after the fact by William Bradford in his History Of Plymouth Plantation. Bradford's History was rediscovered in 1854 after having been taken by British looters during the Revolutionary War. Its discovery prompted a greater American interest in the history of the Pilgrims. It is also in this account that the Thanksgiving turkey tradition is founded.
    They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercising in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion. All the summer there was no want; and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees). And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides they had about a peck of meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to that proportion. Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports.

The primary sources above only list a few items that were on the Thanksgiving "menu", namely five deer, a large number of turkeys and waterfowl, cod, and bass; plus the harvest, which consisted of wheat, corn, barley, and perhaps any peas that survived the scorching. To that list, we can probably add a few additional things that are known to have been native to the area and eaten by the Pilgrims: clams, mussels, lobster, eel, ground nuts, acorns, walnuts, chestnuts, squashes, and beans. Fruits and berries such as strawberries, raspberries, grapes, and gooseberries were available growing wild. Pilgrim house-gardens may have included a number of English vegetables and herbs, perhaps things like onions, leeks, sorrel, yarrow, lettuce, carrots, radishes, currants, liverwort, watercress, and others.
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11-29-2013, 03:18 AM
Post: #6
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Women of Early Plymouth

Governor William Bradford reported that the Pilgrims were worried that the "weak bodies of women" would not be able to withstand the rigors of a trans-Atlantic voyage and the construction of a colony. Prior to the Mayflower, very few English women had made the voyage across the ocean. Sir Walter Raleigh's Roanoke colony arrived in Virginia in 1587, and amongst those 120 colonists there were 17 women: a baby girl, Virginia Dare, was born after arrival. When re-supply ships came from England, they could not relocate the people. The colony had mysteriously disappeared, and was never seen again. The Jamestown Colony was founded in 1607, but relatively few women had yet made the voyage and taken up residence there.

[Image: Woman3.jpg?format=300w]

The Pilgrim husband, as head of the household, had an important and difficult decision to make. Building a colony would be hard on a woman's "weaker body." It might be safer and more healthy to leave her behind, and have her come later once the houses were built, and the general safety and successfulness of the colony were better established. But that could be several years. Could he live several years without his wife? How strong was his wife anyway, could she really handle it? Was it right to put your wife's life in danger in this manner?

Francis Cooke, Thomas Rogers, Samuel Fuller and Richard Warren felt it was better if their wives Hester, Alice, Bridget and Elizabeth stayed behind, and came over later. Degory Priest also left behind his wife Sarah, despite the fact Sarah's brother Isaac Allerton came on the Mayflower with his pregnant wife and three young children. But most husbands, 18 in total, decided their wives should come with them. Was it the right decision?

As the Mayflower left England for America, there were 18 adult women on-board. Three of them, Elizabeth Hopkins, Susanna White, and Mary Allerton, were actually in their last trimester of a pregnancy. All the adult women on the Mayflower were married, there were no single women--although there were a few teenage girls nearing marriageable age.

While no women would die during the Mayflower's voyage, life after arrival proved extremely difficult. In fact, 78% of the women would die the first winter, a far higher percentage than for men or children. Dorothy Bradford was the first woman to die, and the only woman who died in the month of December. While many of the men, including her husband, were out exploring on Cape Cod, she accidentally fell off the Mayflower into the bitter cold waters of Provincetown Harbor. Most of the women's death dates were not recorded, but we do know that Rose Standish died on January 29, Mary Allerton died on February 25, and Elizabeth Winslow died on March 24. Most of the women died in February and March.

[Image: Woman2.jpg?format=300w]

The extremely high mortality rate among women is probably explainable by the fact the men were out in the fresh air, felling trees, building structures and drinking fresh New England water; while the women were confined to the damp, filthy and crowded quarters offered by the Mayflower, where disease would have spread much more quickly. The two-month voyage was long enough; the women, however, remained living on the ship for an additional four months while the men built storehouses and living quarters on shore. Many of the sick were no doubt cared for on-board the ship by the women, increasing their exposure to colds and pneumonias. William Mullins died on February 21, apparently on-board the Mayflower since his will was witnessed by the ship's captain and ship's surgeon. His wife Alice and son Joseph had not yet died, but it wasn't too long before they did, orphaning their teenage daughter Priscilla in the New World.

Only five women survived the first winter. One of the five survivors, Mrs. Katherine Carver, died in May of a "broken heart," her husband John having died of sunstroke a month earlier. Weak bodies or not, by the time of the famous "Thanksgiving," there were only four women left to care for the Colony's fifty surviving men and children. The four women were Eleanor Billington, Elizabeth Hopkins, Mary Brewster, and Susanna (White) Winslow. Susanna Winslow was the widow of William White who died the first winter; she remarried to Edward Winslow, whose wife Elizabeth had also died the first winter.

Incidentally, all the wives who had been left behind were still living. Four of them came on the ship Anne in 1623, had additional children, and raised their families at Plymouth.

Things the Pilgrims Brought on the Mayflower

[Image: DSC00550.JPG?format=500w]

The Pilgrims did not leave behind any lists of the items they brought with them on the Mayflower, but historians have used a provision list put together by Captain John Smith (of Pocahontas fame) to take an educated guess. However, in 2012, Caleb Johnson, Simon Neal, and Jeremy Bangs started transcribing and studying a rare manuscript (a page of which is here illustrated) in the possession of the Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, that was written by one of the investors in the Pilgrims' joint-stock company. This manuscript actually contains several lists of suggested provisions the colonists should bring with them. It is the closest thing we can get to a list of what the Pilgrims would have actually brought. A summary of some of the key items on the provision lists:

Food and Drink
Biscuit, beer, salt, (dried) beef, salt pork, oats, peas, wheat, butter, sweet oil, mustard seed, ling or cod fish, "good cheese", vinegar, aqua-vitae, rice, bacon, cider.

Monmouth cap, falling bands, shirts, waistcoat, suit of canvas, suit of cloth, Irish stockings, 4 pairs of shoes, garters. Slippers, plain shoes, little shoes, French soles. Sewing needles.A

Canvas sheets, bolster "filled with good straw", rug and blankets

Light armor (complete), fowling piece, snaphance, sword, belt, bandoleer, powder horn, 20 pounds of powder, 60 pounds of shot

Iron pot, kettle, frying pan, gridiron, two skillets, spit, platters, dishes, spoons of wood, napkins, towels, soap., hand mill, mortar and pestle

Broad hoes, narrow hoes, broad axe, felling axe, steel handsaw, whipsaw, hammers, shovels, spades, augers, chisels, gimlets, hatchets, grinding stone, nails, locks for doors

[Image: moncap.jpg?format=300w]

A 17th century Monmouth cap.

[Image: armor.jpg?format=300w]

Example of 17th century armor and musket.

[Image: pot.jpg?format=300w]

Iron cooking pot believed to have been owned by Myles Standish. On display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum.

[Image: tools.jpg?format=300w]

17th century woodcut of men working in an orchard with some various tools. (Countrie Farme, 1616).
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11-29-2013, 03:24 AM
Post: #7
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Inside the Mayflower

[Image: crossxm3.jpg?format=750w]

This is where the crew's meals were cooked, and where the crew's food and supplies were stored.

Poop House
Nothing to do with a bathroom, the poop house was the living quarters for the ship's master, Christopher Jones, and some of the higher ranking crew, perhaps Master's Mates' John Clarke and Robert Coppin.

This was the general sleeping quarters for the Mayflower's twenty or thirty crewmembers. The crew slept in shifts, so not everyone was sleeping in the room at the same time.

Steerage Room
This is where the ship's pilot (John Clark, primarily) steered the Mayflower. Steering was done by a stick called a whip-staff that was moved back and forth to move the tiller, which in turn moved the rudder.

Gun Room
This is where the powder, shot, and other supplies were stored for the ship's guns and cannons.

Gun Deck
The gun deck is where the cannon were located. On merchant ships, this deck was also used to hold additional cargo. On the Mayflower, it is where the majority of the passengers lived. They built their own makeshift cabins within this area.

Capstan and Windlass
These were large apparatus used to lift and lower heavy cargo between the ship's decks.

Cargo Hold
This is where the Pilgrims stored their cargo of food, drink, tools, and supplies.

[Image: crossx3.jpg?format=300w]

The gun deck, sometimes referred to by the Pilgrims as the "tween deck" or the area "betwixt the decks", is where the Pilgrims lived for most of hte voyage. Occasionally they ventured to the upper deck, especially during calmer weather when they would be less likely to get in the way of the seamen and there was less danger of being swept overboard. The gun deck had about four gun ports on either side of the ship for cannon. Even though the Mayflower was a merchant ship, it needed to be able to defend itself from pirates and ships from countries hostile to England. The ship also had to be prepared for possible conscription--the King or Queen had authority to turn merchant ships into military vessels during a time of war. The height of the ceiling of the gun deck was only about five and a half feet, so tall people could not have stood up straight.

[Image: deckplan2.jpg?format=750w]

During the voyage, the 102 Mayflower passengers lived primarily on the gun deck. The length of the deck from stem to stern was about 80 feet, of which about 12 feet at the back belonged to the gun room and was off-limits to the passengers. The width at the widest part was about 24 feet. This means the living space for all 102 people was only about 58 feet by 24 feet! Various hatches provided access to the cargo hold below. The windlass and capstan, used to haul heavy items between the decks, also took up floorspace, as did the main mast in the middle, and the sprit sail mast in the front. On top of that, the Pilgrims stored on this deck a 30-foot shallop (a small single-sail boat) that they would reassemble upon arrival and use for exploration and future trade. Families would have built themselves small little "cabins", simple wood dividers nailed together, to provide a very small amount of privacy. They lived in this small space for the 66-day voyage, and then many of them lived there another four to six months as they explored for a place to live, and later worked to build houses on shore, in the middle of a snowy and wet New England winter.
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11-29-2013, 03:35 AM
Post: #8
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
The Militia and Fort

[Image: armor.jpg?format=300w]

At the west end of the street, on the highest point overlooking the town and the bay, the Pilgrims built a two-story fort, from which they could defend the town. The Pilgrims feared that the French or Spanish (or pirates) might attempt to attack the colony. They also feared that unfriendly Indians could mount an attack on the colony. The Pilgrims had brought with them several different types of cannons, which they hauled up to the second story of the fort and mounted in a way that could command the whole harbor. The largest was a minion cannon, which was brass, weighed about 1200 pounds, and could shoot a 3.5 pound cannonball nearly a mile. They also had a saker cannon of about 800 pounds, and two base cannons that were much smaller, perhaps about 200 pounds and which shot a 3 to 5 ounce ball. Various other gun ports in the fort could be opened and closed for the smaller cannon to be moved and pointed in any direction necessary. Observation windows provided a clear view of the town, the harbor, and the nearby woods. By 1627, Plymouth's fort had six cannon, plus four small ones positioned near the governor's house at Plymouth's main intersection. The fort served not only for defense, however. It was also the Pilgrims meetinghouse, where church services, town meetings, and court sessions were held.

[Image: v3.jpg?format=500w]

Captain Myles Standish was the Pilgrim's military leader, responsible for organizing the militia and defending the colony. He had been a lieutenant in Queen Elizabeth's army and was stationed in the Netherlands, where he made friends with the Pilgrims and their pastor, John Robinson. He is remembered as having been unusually short, with ruddy-red hair, very faithful and loyal, yet with a quick temper that often made his face turn red, earning him the nickname "Captain Shrimp" by some of those who did not like him. He was routinely elected and re-elected to the position of militia captain throughout the first few decades of the colony. He was responsible for training the men in the use of their armor, guns, and cannon; he established and appointed the watch shifts, and organized and trained the men for various forms of attacks that could be made against the colony. Luckily for Captain Standish, there were never any direct attacks on Plymouth itself, though the town occasionally sent him and some of his militia to help other neighboring English colonists with their disputes with the Indians, and they occasionally used the militia to arrest trespassers or others that were violating the terms of their trading contracts or otherwise causing problems.

[Image: DSC00218.JPG?format=300w]

[Image: DSC00229.JPG?format=500w]

A Pilgrim suit of armor.
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11-29-2013, 03:38 AM
Post: #9
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Houses in Early Plymouth Colony

[Image: v7.jpg?format=750w]

The Pilgrims started constructing their living houses and storehouses in late December 1620, but only managed to get a couple built before and during the first winter. They were hindered not only by the weather, but by occasional fires usually caused by a spark or ember from the fire making it onto the roof (which was constructed of dried thatch.) On 28 December 1620, the Pilgrims assigned out house-plots to the 19 family groups--each family was responsible for building their own house, as well as supplying labor to build community storehouses, a defensive fort, fences and sheds. They were assigned land plots that were 50 feet deep. The width of the lot was about 8 feet multiplied by the number of members in the family--so a family of six would have received a plot of land approximately 50 feet by 48 feet. But without the time, good weather, and enough manpower to quickly build a house, many of the Pilgrims continued to live onboard the Mayflower throughout the winter. A year later (in December 1621), Mayflower passenger Edward Winslow wrote a letter in which he said "we have built seven dwelling-houses, and four for the use of the plantation." In 1622, the Pilgrims built a fence around the colony for their better defense--the perimeter was nearly half a mile, and the fence was about 8 to 9 feet high.

[Image: h2.jpg?format=750w]

In late 1623, Emmanual Altham wrote a letter from Plymouth to his brother back in England, and reported that there were about twenty houses, but only about five of them were "very fair and pleasant." By that time, several additional ships carrying passengers, including the Fortune in 1621, and the Anne in 1623, had arrived. The Fortune brought mostly young, undisciplined men, whom the company hoped would contribute labor. The Anne brought many of the wives and children to the colony--many of the men had left behind their wives and children in England until the colony was better established. In 1624, Captain John Smith recorded that Plymouth had about 32 houses, "whereof 7 were burnt the last winter."

In 1628, Plymouth was visited by the Dutchman named Isaac de Rasieres, and he wrote a more detailed description of what he saw:
    New Plymouth lies on the slope of a hill stretching east towards the sea-coast, with a broad street about a cannon shot of 800 feet long, leading down the hill; with a crossing in the middle, ... The houses are constructed of clapboards, with gardens also enclosed behind and at the sides with clapboards, so that their houses and courtyards are arranged in very good order, with a stockade against sudden attack; and at the ends of the streets there are three wooden gates. ... Upon the hill they have a large square house, with a flat roof, built of thick sawn planks stayed with oak beams, upon the top of which they have six cannon.

[Image: v10.jpg?format=300w]

The earliest houses in Plymouth had thatched roofs, but because they were more likely to catch on fire, the colony eventually passed a law that required new homes be built with plank instead. Most houses had dirt floors, not wooden floors, and each had a prominent fire and chimney area, since this was the only source of heat as well as the only way to cook. Each house would have had its own garden, where vegetables and herbs could be grown. Each family was also assigned a field plot just outside of town, where they could grow corn, beans, peas, wheat, and other crops that required more space to grow, as well as to raise larger livestock.
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11-29-2013, 05:54 AM
Post: #10
RE: Heathens were the majority of Pilgrims on Mayflower
Happy Thanksgiving!
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