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History of Alternative Schools
11-20-2013, 10:16 AM
Post: #1
History of Alternative Schools
History of Alternative Schools

The roots of many twentieth century alternative school movements go back to three European philosopher/educators: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, and Friedrich Froebel. In his 1762 book Emile, Rousseau argued that education should follow the child’s natural growth rather than the demands of society, which, he claimed, tend to thwart all that is organic, natural and spiritual.

This emphasis on the innate development of human nature became the primary philosophical basis for many alternative movements in education. It has influenced progressive educators as well as generations of libertarian thinkers.

In the early 1800′s, the Swiss humanitarian Pestalozzi opened schools for orphans, adopting Rousseau’s principles. His work inspired educators in Europe and America (including Alcott). One of his disciples, Joseph Neef, emigrated to the U.S. and founded child-centered schools in three states between 1809 and 1827. Froebel was another teacher at Pestalozzi’s school, and later became famous as the founder of the kindergarten concept; it is not well known that Froebel envisioned all levels of schooling as being nourishing “gardens” for children’s spontaneous development.

This philosophical tradition strongly influenced Francis Parker, who, with John Dewey, originated the progressive education movement late in the nineteenth century. A public school superintendent, head of a teacher education program, and popular speaker and author, Parker believed that education should serve the needs of children and conform to their styles of thinking and learning.

At the same time, two European educational pioneers designed alternative methods with roots going back to Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel. Maria Montessori was an Italian pediatrician/psychiatrist who studied child development with a meticulous scientific eye as well as a deep religious faith in the divine essence of the human being. She opened her first “children’s home” in 1907.

The period between 1967 and 1972, especially, was a time of crisis for public education, when student demonstrations, teacher strikes, and a deep questioning of traditional assumptions shook the system to its core. In these few years alone, over 500 “free schools”–nonpublic schools based on countercultural if not revolutionary ideas–were founded. Open classrooms and magnet schools (public schools of choice) were introduced. And the spirit of Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel began to seep into academic and professional circles.
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09-26-2015, 02:41 AM
Post: #2
RE: History of Alternative Schools
Alternative schools that the government doesn't control is the best way we can keep our freedom.

[color=#0000CD][size=x-large][font=Times New Roman]Svoboda[/font][/size][/color]
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