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1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiére: First Film Screening
11-05-2013, 01:13 PM
Post: #1
1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiére: First Film Screening
Louis and Auguste Lumiére: First Film Screening
They were both White Race inventors.

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First film screen projector for a crowd.

March 22, 1895 the world changed when Louis and Auguste Lumiére projected the first motion picture on a screen at 44 Rue de Rennes in Paris.

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April 23, 1895 at Koster and Bial’s Music Hall in New York City, projected by “Edison’s Vitascope” onto a screen of muslin stretched within an ornate gold frame. The show, advertised as “Edison’s latest marvel”, included short five-minute films of dances, a prizefight and crashing waves in “Rough Seas at Dover” all to a cheering crowd.

Lumiére brothers beat Edison to the first public crowd film screening by 30 days.
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11-05-2013, 01:19 PM
Post: #2
RE: Louis and Auguste Lumiére: First Film Screening
Cinema in Germany one year later

April 20, 1896 the Cologne chocolate and vending machine company Gebr. Stollwerk & Co. brought the Cinématographe Lumière to Germany and patented its name immediately. On April 16 that year they held the first film show in Germany on the company premises. Four days later the public premiere took place. At the end of the month regular film shows also started in Berlin and the Deutsche Kinematographische Gesellschaft- (German Cinematographic Society) opened a projection room in the capital city on April 26. At the end of June, film pioneer Oskar Messter started trading cinema projectors. The Maltese cross technique made copy-saving intermediate film transport possible. In the late autumn several exhibitors were already active throughout Germany. Messter also produced and sold movies; his company catalogue of 1898 offered 84 different titles. Late in the year, Oskar Messter opens an indoor film studio on Berlin's Friedrichstraße and hires some of Germany's very first film directors. He is one of the first film producers to realize the advantages of an indoor studio, making filmmakers less dependent on the variable German weather.

In the next year the first permanent German cinema was opened in Berlin's Münzstraße while the city of Dresden followed one year later. In 1904 Deutsche Mutoskop- und Biograph GmbH builds new studios in the Berlin suburb of Lankwitz. The nine-minute-long German film Der Raubmord am Spandauer Schifffahrtskanal bei Berlin ("Robbery and Murder on the Spanau Ship Canal Near Berlin") is modelled on the American Western, The Great Train Robbery (1903) which has a running time of 10 minutes. Meanwhile Messter had founded his Projection GmbH (Projection Ltd) in Berlin, thus continuing his business. In 1902 inventor Theodor Pätzold brought the wing fade onto the market, ensuring flicker-free projection. Already the next year Messter showed 'sound pictures' by synchronising the new projection technique with another remarkable invention: the phonograph. In 1905 the Chief Constable of Berlin ordered preventive censorship. In this year the Alfred Duskes GmbH started as the first German distribution company. Operating from Berlin it not only sold, but also rented out film copies to cinema owners. The number of permanent cinemas expanded in 1906 to the cities of Munich, Cologne and Düsseldorf while at this point in Berlin film censorship became institutionalised. Also the first German film stock company saw the light, in Frankfurt/Main: Allgemeine Kinematographen- Theater Gesellschaft, Union Theater für lebende und Tonbilder GmbH, from 1909 onwards known as Pagu (General Cinematograph-Theatre Society, Union Theatre for Motion and Sound Pictures Ltd). If in 1905 there were only 16 permanent cinemas in Berlin, in January 1907 official statistics registered 139 permanent cinemas in the metropolis.

At the end of 1907 the first specialised trade magazine, Der Kinematograph - Organ für die gesamte Projektionskunst (... - Magazine for the Whole Field of Film Exhibition) counted at least 260 stationary cinemas. This magazine would continue to appear until 1934. With the increasing amount of cinemas, fire regulations were ordered. Special drums had to be provided around the highly inflammable nitrate film reels. Furthermore, the first objectors organised themselves in the Kinematographische Reformvereinigung (Cinematographic Reform Society), a moralising organisation that crusaded against 'trash' films in the cinemas.

In 1908 report cards were introduced in Berlin for censored films. Following Berlin, film censorship also became institutionalised in the city of Dresden. In Hamburg a large cinematographic exhibition took place. Also the first issue of the magazine Licht-Bild-Bühne - Fachorgan für das Interessengebiet der kinematographischen Theater-praxis (specialist magazine for cinematographic theatre practice) came out. In the following years it was published weekly until it merged with the Film-Kurier in 1940. In 1909 the famous Union Theater opened in the Grand Hotel at Berlin Alexanderplatz, being one of the first cinemas with its own orchestra. Estimates from 1910 register between 1 000 and 1 500 cinemas in the German Reich. Also thanks to this amount of cinemas the film copy trade made place for the film rental distribution system. The film synopsis, so far given out by the distributors and producers to be printed in the newspapers, was gradually being replaced by film reviews in the strict sense. Also in 1909 Jules Greenbaum founds the Deutsche Vitascope Gesellschaft film production company after breaking away from Deutsche Bioscop-GmbH, which he had founded earlier. Greenbaum builds the first studios southwest of Berlin, in a location later known as Babelsberg, Germany's Hollywood. Deutsche Bioscop-GmbH continues under the leadership of Guido Seeber.

In 1912 production begins on the first film to be made in Deutsche Bioscop's new Babelsberg glass studios southwest of Berlin: "Der Totentanz" (The Death Dance) with the Danish filmstar, Asta Nielsen (1883-1972). In 1921 Deutsche Bioscop will become part of Ufa, and Babelsberg will be Ufa's main studio complex. In the cinemas, Scandinavian movies with a length of 45 minutes were shown. The use of title links gradually made the job of the reciter unnecessary. It was in 1911 that the first German cinema palace opened, in Berlin: Cinés at the Nollendorfplatz, with more than 1 000 seats. In this year, the decisions of the Berlin Board of Censors became binding all over Prussia and soon for the other states of the German Reich as well. It was controlling about 13 000 movies in the period between 1906-1911 and thus Germany was the second largest film market in the world after the USA, where 17 000 films were shown in the same period. The amount of cinema theatres was increasing very fast. In 1911 more than 2 000 cinemas existed in the German Reich, of which 50 were premiere theatres. Throughout the country the industry organised itself; there existed 22 registered interest groups: 10 for cinema owners, 1 for distributors, 6 for cinema staff, 4 for projectionists and 1 for managers and reciters.

In this year Karl August Geyer established the first exclusive printing lab. In 1912 in Munich censorship became institutionalised. In accordance with the police, a national board of teachers examined movies regarding their suitability for young people. The next year about 6 000 movies were running in Germany. 1913 saw the beginning of narrativisation in film. In order to improve their reputation, production companies engaged writers as screenwriters. For the first time well-known theatre actors took on film parts, including Denmark's Asta Nielsen, star of the Danish production Abgrunden, who came to Germany and became 'die Asta' for real. Developments evolved in the 'cinema debate', about the rights and the wrongs of cinemas and the films that were shown there. Meanwhile in Berlin-Tempelhof, Alfred Duskes and Paul Davidson's film stock company Pagu built the first glass atelier. Films could be shot indoors from then on, using sunlight combined with carbon lighting. In 1917 the studio was taken over by Oskar Messter and one year later by the Ufa.

A huge cinema was opened on the Kurfürstendam in Berlin: the Union Theater, offering 1 000 seats. Two months after the outbreak of the First World War, the first Wochenschau - the weekly newsreel the Messter Week - was shown in the cinemas. One year later the Decla production company was founded by Erich Pommer and Fritz Holz. In 1917 the army instigated the founding of the Ufa (the word was 'invented' first, not much later 'filled in' as Universum-Film AG) which pursued a monopolistic business in "all the branches of the film industry". On November 12 1918, three days after the abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II, the Rat der Volksbeauftragten (Council of the People's Representatives) abolished state censorship. In the following year, a general strike of the employees in the film industry, to achieve better wage agreements, was a great success. It was also in 1919 that the first issue of the daily Film-Kurier (Film-Courier) was published.
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11-07-2013, 01:11 PM
Post: #3
RE: 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiére: First Film Screening
Great White Race achievements.
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